Purpose of Corporate Bylaws 公司章程


1) Bylaws and the Board of Directors:
A corporation’s bylaws may often provide for terms governing the creation, structure and operation of its Board of Directors including, without limitation:

The number of a corporation’s Directors and how that number may be amended.
The committees of the corporation’s Board of Directors and the functions of those committees.
The qualifications required of the corporation’s Board of Directors.
The processes by which meetings of the Board of Directors or board committees are called (such as means of providing notice and required notice periods).
The procedures governing Board of Director meetings (such as quorum requirements; voting percentages required for action; and the means by which meetings may be held, such as in person, via telephone and/or through web-based services).
The circumstances under which voting proxies may be given to third parties in order to vote on a Director’s behalf.
The requirements for Directors to act by written consent without a meeting.
The scope of indemnification of Directors and advancement of expenses in the event of litigation (though many corporations supplement Directors’ rights of indemnification with separate contractual agreements).


2) Bylaws and Officer Positions:
In addition, bylaws often set forth the titles of officers that will operate the day-to-day activities of the corporation (e.g., president, vice president, secretary). These provisions may also provide a broad description of the officers’ respective responsibilities and the means by which an officer can be replaced or new classes of officers can be created. In addition, among other things, the bylaws will detail the terms and conditions under which officers will be indemnified for actions taken in the role with the corporation.

3) Bylaws and Shareholder Matters:
The bylaws often contain a number of provisions governing shareholder voting and activities, including, without limitation:

The means by which shareholder meetings are called.
Any specific notice or record date requirements for voting.
The percentage of shareholders required to approve a delineated action (if greater than a majority).
The means by which a shareholder may provide a proxy to vote its shares.
The means by which shareholders may vote by written consent rather than through a meeting.


4) Amendment of the Bylaws:
Unlike the amendments of a Certificate of Incorporation, which are subject to specific requirements under Delaware law, a corporation’s bylaws may provide for amendment by the Board of Directors, by the shareholders or by both.

Corporate bylaws are extremely important in the ongoing operation of a corporation, but the precise provisions of corporate bylaws can vary. Delaware law seeks to provide a level of flexibility in the operations and internal organization of a corporation, within certain parameters.

Source: http://delcode.delaware.gov/title8/c001/sc01/

公司章程的四个目的
1) 章程和董事会:
公司章程通常可能规定管理其董事会的创建、结构和运作的条款,包括但不限于:

公司董事的人数以及如何修改该人数。
公司董事会的委员会以及这些委员会的职能。
公司董事会所需的资格。
召开董事会或董事会委员会会议的程序(例如提供通知的方式和规定的通知期限)。
管理董事会会议的程序(例如法定人数要求;采取行动所需的投票百分比;以及召开会议的方式,例如亲自、通过电话和/或通过基于网络的服务)。
在何种情况下可以向第三方提供投票代理以代表董事投票。
董事无需召开会议即可通过书面同意行事的要求。
发生诉讼时董事的赔偿范围和费用预付(尽管许多公司通过单独的合同协议补充董事的赔偿权利)。

2) 章程和官员职位:
此外,章程通常规定了将负责公司日常活动的官员的头衔(例如,总裁、副总裁、秘书)。这些规定还可以广泛描述军官各自的职责以及更换军官或创建新级别军官的方法。此外,除其他外,章程将详细说明高级职员因在公司中采取的行动而获得赔偿的条款和条件。

3) 章程和股东事项:
章程通常包含许多管理股东投票和活动的规定,包括但不限于:

召开股东大会的方式。
投票的任何特定通知或记录日期要求。
批准一项规定行动所需的股东百分比(如果大于多数)。
股东可以委托代理人投票的方式。
股东可以通过书面同意而不是通过会议进行投票的方式。


4) 章程的修改:
与受特拉华州法律特定要求约束的公司注册证书的修改不同,公司章程可以规定由董事会、股东或两者进行修改。

公司章程在公司的持续运营中极为重要,但公司章程的具体规定可能会有所不同。特拉华州法律寻求在某些参数范围内为公司的运营和内部组织提供一定程度的灵活性。

来源:http://delcode.delaware.gov/title8/c001/sc01/

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